In a pentadactyl (five-fingered or five-toed) arrangement, the most medial digit, if present, is I (e.g. the human
thumb) and the most lateral is V (e.g. the human
The distal part of a limb that bears weight, and facilitates locomotion and manipulation.
The limbs of quadrupeds, such as dogs and cats, are legs.
Having five digits (fingers, toes) on a limb.
Relating to, or located towards, the middle of the body, or a structure of the body.
Located away from the middle of the body, or a structure of the body.
Relating to or located towards the left or the right side.
Remaining as a remnant or trace of a structure that had been present in the ancestors of a species. Often the original functionality is (to some degree) now lacking, and the structure has become rudimentary or degenerate.
1. Toes that are located within or inside other toes. Some authorities refer to toes III and IV of cats and dogs as inner toes because they are located inside toes II and V (outer toes). Also known as
2. Toes that are medial to other toes, being on the inner side of the foot. In this sense, toe II is the inner toe of feet of dogs and cats, and toes III to V are lateral to toe II, being on its outer side.
Toes that are located outside other toes.
Some authorities refer to toes II and V of cats and dogs
as outer toes because they are located
outside toes III and IV (the inner toes).
2. Toes that are
lateral to other toes, being on the outer
side of the foot. In this sense,
toe V is the outer toe
of feet of dogs and cats, and
toes II to IV are
to toe V, being on
its inner side.